As the end of the age approaches, many Christians are experiencing a supernatural awakening and are studying the Scriptures from a Hebraic perspective, just as the First Century followers of Yeshua (Jesus) did before the church left "the ancient paths" of the faith (Jer. 6:16). Elohim (God) is calling them out of modern-day spiritual Babylon (Rev. 18:4) to help restore, “the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints…” (Jude 1:3). This incredible awakening is manifesting itself in what has become known as the Hebrew Roots Movement.

In support of this grass roots movement, I have been led by Elohim (God) to create this website, and I pray that it will be a blessing to you! It is the product of a 38-year relationship with my heavenly Father, who has revealed many wonderful things to me.

  • In the "Teachings" section you will find my publications that are written from a First Century, Hebraic perspective.

  • The "Studies" section is comprised a list of resources, beginning with the page "Recommended Study Materials," which includes many foundational, Torah-observant, teachings produced by other Hebrew Roots ministries. Check out the entire list of study materials to see what other subjects you might be interested in.

  • The "Aviv Barley & New Moon Reports" page contains two links, one to download or order a free booklet on the Holy Days, and another to a Facebook group where you will be able to receive aviv barley and new moon reports.

  • Finally, be sure to check out the "Holy Bible: Ancient Paths Version" page in order to look over its key features, and to find out what separates it from other versions. This project is still in a developmental stage; however, it will soon be available for download in PDF format free of charge. In the meantime, if you would like to follow the progress of this project, consider following the Facebook Page.

May יהוה bless you!

Stephen Otto

[ Learn More About Stephen Otto ]

In Development


Features of the Ancient Paths Version

  • The personal name of Elohim has been restored to the text in the form of the Tetragrammaton.

  • The words of יהוה in the Old Testament and the words of Yeshua in the New Testament are presented in blue type, which is consistent with the reason why יהוה commanded the children of Israel to attach a blue cord in their tassels (Numbers 15:37-41).
    (See the
    Introduction of The Ancient Paths Version for the full description).

  • The books of both the Old Testament and the New Testament have been restored to their original order, which, when combined, include seven divisions of Scripture: 1) The Torah; 2) The Prophets; 3) The Writings; 4) The Good News; 5) The Acts of the Apostles; 6) The Letters and the Apostles; and 7) The Book of Revelation.

  • The Hebrew Bible includes the Book of Daniel in the division, “the Writings,” while Christian Bibles include it in the division, “the Major Prophets.” Since the Book of Daniel parallels the Book of Revelation, which is placed at the end of the New Testament, the Book of Daniel is placed at the end of the division, “the Prophets.”

  • Includes an appendix that explains the most notable scriptural corrections.

  • Includes over 1100 footnotes.

  • Includes a Glossary of Terms.

  • The text is set in a double-column, verse-by-verse format for easy referencing and reading.

  • Topical headings are added into the text for clarity.

  • New Testament quotes of passages from the Old Testament are presented in bolded text.

  • Words that are added to the text for the sake of clarification are presented in italicized text.



King David wrote, “He built His sanctuary like the heights, like the earth which He has established forever” (Ps. 78:69). A careful examination of this Scripture will reveal that it identifies three sanctuaries, which are all types of one another: 1. the “sanctuary” is a reference to the Tabernacle in the Wilderness (Ex. 25–31 and 35–40); 2. the “earth” is a reference to planet earth; and 3. the “heights”, which is a reference to the original, the heavenly sanctuary (Heb. 8:5; Ex. 25:40). Of course, it serves as the pattern for the other two sanctuaries.The purpose of a sanctuary is to sustain life. Specifically, Elohim designed the earth to sustain physical life, and the Tabernacle to sustain spiritual life. A comparison of the two will reveal that they contain equivalent, life-sustaining qualities. The life-sustaining qualities of the earth are contained in the seven days of creation, while the life-sustaining qualities of the Tabernacle are contained in the seven phases of creation related to the Tabernacle. Amazingly, when these equivalent, life-sustaining qualities are placed in a list, they prove to comprise a seven-stage code that, if applied, will culminate in eternal life! So, let’s dig deeper.

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One of the most intriguing mysteries of the Bible is the identity of the two witnesses in the Book of Revelation. They appear in chapter 11 of this highly-symbolic book where they play a prominent role in the prophecies that occur at the end of the age. There are a number of interpretations as to their identity. While all of them are based on elements of truth, they fall short because they fail to recognize the most important clue within the context of the chapter. That clue is in verse 15, which reads, “The seventh messenger sounded, and great voices in heaven followed, saying, ‘The kingdom of the world has become the Kingdom of our Master, and of His Messiah. He will reign forever and ever!’” This clue, understood in light of the fact that when Messiah Yeshua returns, He will return as our Groom, will reveal the identity of the two witnesses. Now, let’s study this chapter from a Hebrew Roots perspective, verse by verse!


The Parable of the Good Samaritan, recorded in Luke 10:25-37, is one of Yeshua’s most beloved parables. Over the years ministers have read it to their followers hoping to instill in them a greater sense of brotherhood and kindness. While this teaching is commendable, it does not convey the fullest significance of the parable. The account begins when a lawyer, who was well-versed in the Law of Moses, the Torah, challenged Yeshua with the question, “…Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?” After Yeshua’s reply, the lawyer asked the follow-up question, “Who is my neighbor?” It was at this point that Yeshua told the parable. Many people lose focus on the first question regarding eternal life and instead, focus on the follow-up question as if it were a separate, unrelated question. It is not. This mistake reduces the message of the parable to a social issue rather than a spiritual issue, salvation. So, with this context in mind, let us refocus on the true topic of the parable, salvation, to see what wonderful mysteries it contains!



In Isaiah 46:9-10, Elohim tells us that He declares, “…the end from the beginning….” As a result, those who desire to know what is prophesied to happen at the end of the age must first “search out” what happened in the beginning. It makes sense, then, that the starting place for understanding the prophecies related to the end of the age is in the book of Genesis, which in Hebrew means, the book of “Beginnings.”
In The Genesis Code, Part 1: The Tabernacle and Salvation, a biblical code was revealed in the book of Genesis, which is based on the seven days of creation. It is here where the keys to the prophecies that are related to the end of the age are encoded. The code has multiple applications, but perhaps none more significant than how it applies to the current, spiritual temple, the Body of Messiah (1 Cor. 3:16-17; 6:15-20; 2 Cor. 6:14-18; Eph. 2:19-22; 1 Pet. 2:5). So let’s dig even deeper!


Are the things that are happening in the world today signs that we are nearing the end of the age? How did they spiral out of control so quickly? Is it possible that we have failed to identify the prophesies that culminate in Yeshua’s return (Rev. 11:15), namely the seven trumpet plagues? Is His return imminent? If it is, is it possible that the fifth trumpet plagues, which are described as the first “woe,” are currently being fulfilled? King Solomon wrote, “It is the glory of Elohim to conceal a matter, but the glory of kings is to search out a matter” (Prov. 25:2). So with this in mind, let's examine?


The Shaliah (Apostle) Paul admonished Timothy to “Preach the word! Be ready in season and out of season. Convince, rebuke, exhort, with all longsuffering and teaching. For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine, but according to their own desires, because they have itching ears, they will heap up for themselves teachers; and they will turn their ears away from the truth, and be turned aside to fables” (2 Tim. 4:2-4). Paul also admonishes Believers to “Test all things; hold fast what is good” (1 Thess. 5:21). So the Scriptures admonish us to test those who claim to come in YHVH’s name. But this begs the question “What standard do we rely on?” Isaiah wrote, “To the Torah and to the testimony! If they do not speak according to this word, surely there is no light in them.” (Isa. 8:20). Paul and Silas preached at Berea and the people, “…received the word with all readiness of the mind, examining the Scriptures daily to see whether these things were so.” (Acts 17:11) And many of them believed. Since the New Testament had not been written yet, the standard that the Bereans used was the Old Testament Scriptures.


Today, there is a great theological dispute in the Body of Messiah as to whom the people of Elohim truly are. Some Believers maintain that Elohim has replaced Israel with the church and that every biblical end of the age prophecy regarding Israel is by default a reference to the church. There are those who refer to this doctrine negatively as “replacement theology!” Other Believers maintain that Elohim has two groups of elect: Israel and the church. There are those who refer to this doctrine negatively as “separation theology!” Still others maintain that the church is Israel! This doctrine is known as “remnant theology!” What is the truth? Who are the people of Elohim today?