As the mediator of the new covenant, Yeshua declared, “I will build my congregation… (Matt. 16:18). He did just that. While it is referred to as the Body of Messiah, Paul referred to it as the “Israel of Elohim (Gal. 6:16). After Yeshua's ascension, the good news was opened to the Gentiles (Acts 10:9-36, 44-45; Rom. 11:13; Gal. 2:7-10), and many converts who were added to the faith rose to positions of authority. They mixed in many elements of their pagan festivals, images, idols, rituals, and traditions with the true faith, which is explicitly forbidden in Scripture (Deut. 12:29-32; Jer. 10:1-5). There soon came a time when a portion of the “ faith which was once for all delivered to the saints (Jude 1:3) was transformed into what became known as the Roman Catholic Church. However, ever since John wrote the Book of Revelation, Elohim has been calling His people out of ...Mystery, Babylon the Great... (Rev. 17:5; 18:4). Many have responded throughout New Testament times by repenting and becoming Torah-observant as the New Covenant requires. But, today, as the end of the age approaches, a huge number of Christians are being led by Elohim to seek “the ancient paths (Jer. 6:16) and are coming to faith (Rev. 7). This incredible awakening has manifested itself in what has become known as the Hebrew Roots Movement. 

In support of this grassroots movement, I have been led by Elohim (God) to create this website. It is the product of a 40-year, incredible relationship with my heavenly Father, who has taught me how to ...search out a matter (Prov. 25:2) and has inspired me to share what I have learned with you. I pray that it will be a blessing to you and that you will share it with others.

In the Teachings tab you will find my publications that are written from a First Century, Hebraic perspective.

In the Studies tab you will find a list of resources, beginning with the page Recommended Study Materials, which includes many foundational, Hebrew Roots teachings produced by other Hebrew Roots ministries.  Check out the entire list of study materials to see what other subjects might be of interest to you.

May יהוה bless you

Stephen Otto

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In Isaiah 46:9-10, Elohim states, “Remember the former things of old, for I am Elohim, and there is no one else. I am El, and there is none like Me, declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times things that are not yet done. Saying, my counsel shall stand, and I will do all My pleasure….” This declaration tells us that those who desire to understand what Elohim has prophesied to happen at the end of the age must first understand how those prophecies correspond to what He had declared at the beginning of the age.

Since the prophecies that are related to the end of the age are best detailed in the Book of Revelation, the "end" of the Bible, it follows that they correspond to what Elohim had declared in the Book of Genesis, at the "beginning" of the Bible, which in Hebrew means, “Beginnings.” Specifically, they prove to correspond to the creative acts Elohim declared during the seven days of creation, which begin with the creation of light and end with rest. The code also proves to have seven corresponding spiritual equivalents that begins with truth and ends in salvation.

The Genesis Code, in my opinion, is now the most important key to understanding Biblical prophecy. It should increase your understanding of it well beyond your current understanding. Events like the great tribulation, the abomination that makes desolate, and the second Exodus, etc., will no longer be a mystery to you. So, let’s get started!

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One of the most intriguing mysteries of the Bible is the identity of the two witnesses in the Book of Revelation. They appear in chapter 11 of this highly-symbolic book where they play a prominent role in the prophecies that occur at the end of the age. There are a number of interpretations as to their identity. While all of them are based on elements of truth, they fall short because they fail to recognize the most important clue within the context of the chapter. That clue is in verse 15, which reads, The seventh messenger sounded, and great voices in heaven followed, saying, 'The kingdom of the world has become the Kingdom of our Master, and of His Messiah. He will reign forever and ever!' This clue, understood in light of the fact that when Messiah Yeshua returns, He will return as our Groom, will reveal the identity of the two witnesses. Now, let’s study this chapter from a Hebrew Roots perspective, verse by verse


The Parable of the Good Samaritan, recorded in Luke 10:25-37, is one of Yeshua’s most beloved parables. Over the years ministers have read it to their followers hoping to instill in them a greater sense of brotherhood and kindness. While this teaching is commendable, it does not convey the fullest significance of the parable. The account begins when a lawyer, who was well-versed in the Law of Moses, the Torah, challenged Yeshua with the question, …Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life? After Yeshua’s reply, the lawyer asked the follow-up question, "Who is my neighbor? It was at this point that Yeshua told the parable. Many people lose focus on the first question regarding eternal life and instead, focus on the follow-up question as if it were a separate, unrelated question. It is not. This mistake reduces the message of the parable to a social issue rather than a spiritual issue, salvation. So, with this context in mind, let us refocus on the true topic of the parable, salvation, to see what wonderful mysteries it contains!



In Isaiah 46:9-10, Elohim tells us that He declares, …the end from the beginning…. As a result, those who desire to know what is prophesied to happen at the end of the age must first "search out" what happened in the beginning. It makes sense, then, that the starting place for understanding the prophecies related to the end of the age is in the book of Genesis, which in Hebrew means, the book of “Beginnings.”

In The Genesis Code, Part 1: The Tabernacle and Salvation, a biblical code was revealed in the book of Genesis, which is based on the seven days of creation. It is here where the keys to the prophecies that are related to the end of the age are encoded. The code has multiple applications, but perhaps none more significant than how it applies to the current, spiritual temple, the Body of Messiah (1 Cor. 3:16-17; 6:15-20; 2 Cor. 6:14-18; Eph. 2:19-22; 1 Pet. 2:5). So let’s dig even deeper! 


Are the things that are happening in the world today signs that we are nearing the end of the age?  How did they spiral out of control so quickly? Is it possible that we have failed to identify the prophesies that culminate in Yeshua’s return (Rev. 11:15), namely the seven trumpet plagues? Is His return imminent? If it is, is it possible that the fifth trumpet plagues, which are described as the first woe, are currently being fulfilled? King Solomon wrote, It is the glory of Elohim to conceal a matter, but the glory of kings is to search out a matter (Prov. 25:2). So with this in mind, let's examine?


The Apostle Paul admonished Timothy to Preach the word! Be ready in season and out of season. Convince, rebuke, exhort, with all longsuffering and teaching. For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine, but according to their own desires, because they have itching ears, they will heap up for themselves teachers; and they will turn their ears away from the truth, and be turned aside to fables (2 Tim. 4:2-4). Paul also admonishes Believers to Test all things; hold fast what is good (1 Thess. 5:21). So the Scriptures admonish us to test those who claim to come in YHVH’s name. But this begs the question What standard do we rely on? Isaiah wrote, To the Torah and to the testimony! If they do not speak according to this word, surely there is no light in them. (Isa. 8:20). Paul and Silas preached at Berea and the people, …received the word with all readiness of the mind, examining the Scriptures daily to see whether these things were so. (Acts 17:11) And many of them believed. Since the New Testament had not been written yet, the standard that the Bereans used was the Old Testament Scriptures.


Today, there is a great theological dispute in the Body of Messiah as to whom the people of Elohim truly are. Some Believers maintain that Elohim has replaced Israel with the church and that every biblical end of the age prophecy regarding Israel is by default a reference to the church. There are those who refer to this doctrine negatively as replacement theology! Other Believers maintain that Elohim has two groups of elect: Israel and the church. There are those who refer to this doctrine negatively as separation theology! Still others maintain that the church is Israel! This doctrine is known as remnant theology!" What is the truth? Who are the people of Elohim today?